The institute’s calculations show that during the manufacture of lithium-ion batteries, an average of between 61 and 106 kg of CO2-equivalents are created per kilowatt-hour of resultant battery capacity. These figures are in contrast to the mean of 150 to 200 kg established by an IVL study in 2017. The institute states that one of the main reasons for this reduction is that the production facilities have become larger and are operating at full capacity, which makes them more efficient.
At present, the employment of alternative energy sources for battery production continues to be relatively small, but its share is increasing. Therefore, according to IVL’s study, the CO2 footprint could be further reduced markedly if in future a far higher percentage of green electricity is used for manufacturing and operations.
The Swedish study from 2017 attracted a good deal of attention. Opponents of e-mobility saw it as confirmation that, as compared to conventional vehicles, e-cars offered virtually no environmental benefits. However, the current report represents an update of its predecessor.